Policy Briefs

Including Coastal Ecosystems in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

The effects of climate change are growing and are already having dramatic consequences, particularly for coastal populations in developing countries (IPCC, 2018). In 2015, by adopting the Paris Agreement, the international community committed to reducing the magnitude of ongoing climate change through the development of national action plans, called Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Five years after signing the Agreement, it appears that the States must undertake drastic efforts to raise their climate ambitions. The ocean, which plays a key role in stabilizing the climate, offers many mitigation and adaptation solutions (Gattuso et al., 2018). Among them, proper management, conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems can help meet both the challenges posed by climate change and the decline in biodiversity, while increasing human well-being. This policy brief explores the challenges of the inclusion in NDCs of such actions based on emblematic coastal ecosystems: mangroves, coral reefs, seagrasses and salt-marshes.

Fanny ChâlesPhD student in Environmental Economics Ocean University Initiative UMR AMURE, University of Brest (UBO)

Issue date: February  2021

ISSN printed version 2647-2201
ISSN digital version 2592-6462

Underwater noise

There are increasing concerns about the impact of underwater noise on marine life spurred by the steady rise in the number and variety of human activities at sea. In particular, chronic noise levels from commercial shipping have increased significantly in the past 60 years and they are set to continue to rise in the coming years. In response to this concern, the United Nations has signed a voluntary commitment to reduce underwater noise (#OceanAction18553), which recognizes the negative impact that shipping noise can have on marine life. In this policy brief, we examine the role of ports in reducing this type of noise and illustrate our findings through a case study of the port of Le Havre.

Laura Recuero VirtoResearch coordinator Ocean University Initiative University of Brest (UBO) i3-CRG, Ecole Polytechnique
Hervé DumezDirector The Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation i3-CRG, Ecole Polytechnique
Pascal GalichonDirector in charge of sustainable development and pilotage Grand Port Maritime du Havre (Le Havre port authority)
Florent Le CourtoisUnderwater noise pollution expert SHOM (French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department)
Manuel MuntoniProgram manager - Ecological Restoration Frame of Reference for the Seine Estuary Groupement d’Intérêt Publique Seine-Aval (GIP Seine-Aval)

Issue date: August  2020

ISSN printed version 2677-6847
ISSN digital version 2677-934X

Questions about Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

The problem of MPAs is not the lack of knowledge about the marine environment, but managing of people, that is, managing the different uses in these areas. Thus, it is much easier to identify MPAs than to manage them effectively, not only in waters under national jurisdiction, but even more so in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Another problem is not enough collegial and transparent scientific committees to ensure good scientific governance of MPAs.

Laura Recuero VirtoResearch coordinator Ocean University Initiative, University of Brest (UBO) ; i3-CRG, Ecole Polytechnique
Modou ThiawCoordinator, Fisheries Ecology Laboratory in West Africa (LEH-AO) (ISRA/CRODT and Universities of UCAD, UGB, UASZ), Dakar-Thiaroye Oceanographic Research Center (ISRA/CRODT)

Issue date: November 2018

ISSN: 2647-2201

Monitoring Sustainable Development Goal 14 on the ocean

This policy brief explains the role of Sustainable Development Goal 14 on the Ocean and points to the related major initiatives of the United Nations through a short interview with Vladimir Ryabinin, Executive Secretary of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. It sets out the relevance of indicators for monitoring the SDG 14 agenda, illustrates progress in this area globally and nationally in France and South Africa, goes over certain coordination challenges and highlights future areas of research.

Laura Recuero VirtoResearch coordinator Ocean University Initiative, University of Brest (UBO) ; i3-CRG, Ecole Polytechnique
Anne-France DidierSpecial Adviser for Regional and Local Governance, Coordinator for SDG14, French Ministry for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition
Kumi KitamoriHead of Division Green Growth & Global Relations, Environment Directorate, OECD

Issue date: November 2018

ISSN: 2647-2201

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